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PH.1 The student will investigate and understand how to plan and conduct investigations in which * the components of a system are defined; * instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements of mass, volume, temperature, heat exchange, energy transformations, motion, fields, and electric charge; * information is recorded and presented in an organized format; * metric units are used in all measurements and calculations; * the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design are recognized; * the limitations of measured quantities through the appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges are recognized; and * data gathered from non-SI instruments are incorporated through appropriate conversions.

This SOL does not have a web site.

PH.2 The student will investigate and understand how to analyze and interpret data. Key concepts include * a description of a physical problem is translated into a mathematical statement in order to find a solution; * relationships between physical quantities are determined using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally obtained data; * the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and includes appropriate units; * interpolated, extrapolated, and analyzed trends are used to make predictions; * inferential statistical tests are applied in evaluating experimental data; and * analysis of systems employs vector quantities utilizing trigonometric and graphical methods.

This SOL does not have a web site.

PH.3 The student will investigate and understand how to demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic. Key concepts include * analysis of primary sources to develop and refine research hypotheses; * analysis of how science explains and predicts relationships; and * evaluation of evidence for scientific theories and how new discoveries may either modify existing theories or result in establishing a new paradigm.

This SOL does not have a web site.

PH.4 The student will investigate and understand how applications of physics affect the world. Key concepts include * principles with examples from the real world; and * exploration of the roles and contributions of science and technology.

Kids Web- Physics

This site includes links to many physics-related fields. Also includes a guided tour of Fermilab- one of the largest particle accelerators in the world.

PH.5 The student will investigate and understand the interrelationships among mass, distance, force, and time through mathematical and experimental processes. Key concepts include * linear motion; * uniform circular motion; * curvilinear motion; * Newton's laws of motion; * gravitation; * celestial mechanics; and * work, power, and energy.

Science,Physics, Relativity, FAQs and Feedback

A very interesting site which includes links to literature and other pages on the subject. Multiple questions that students may ask are listed as well as the answers.

PH.6 The student will investigate and understand that quantities including mass, energy, momentum, and charge are conserved. Key concepts include * kinetic and potential energy; * elastic and inelastic collisions; and * electric power and circuit design.


Explains potential and kinetic energy in simple terms. Includes detailed graphics.

PH.7 The student will investigate and understand that the kinetic molecular theory can be applied to solve quantitative problems involving pressure, volume, and temperature.

Kinetic Theory

A good outline devoted to the Kinetic Theory. Also includes many links to other related theories.

PH.8 The student will investigate and understand that energy can be transferred and transformed to provide usable work. Key concepts include * transformation of energy among forms, including mechanical, thermal, electrical, gravitational, chemical, and nuclear; and * efficiency of systems.

International Geothermal Association

A complete site of geothermal energy. Includes links to other pages with geothermal interests, details of geothermal meetings, and basics about geothermal energy.

Enerfy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN)

This site includes links to energy programs and offices, news, events, and related sites. This site also has its own search engine for easy access.

PH.9 The student will investigate and understand how to use models of transverse and longitudinal waves to interpret wave phenomena. Key concepts include * wave characteristics (period, wavelength, frequency, amplitude and phase); * fundamental wave processes (reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, standing waves, polarization, Doppler effect); and * light and sound in terms of wave models.

Lesson Plan on the Doppler Effect

A good lesson on the Doppler Effect. This site also includes an explanation of how the Doppler Effect will be used on the spacecraft of the NEAR mission.

Nori's Page

A wonderful page full of graphics which allow the student to see a visual representation of the Doppler Effect. Well worth the visit.

PH.10 The student will investigate and understand that different frequencies and wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum are phenomena ranging from radio waves through visible light to gamma radiation. Key concepts include * the properties and behaviors of radio, microwaves, infra- red, visible light, ultra-violet, X-rays, and gamma rays; and * current applications based on the wave properties of each band.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Wonderful graphic of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. This site also contains a description of gamma rays.

PH.11 The student will investigate and understand how light behaves in the fundamental processes of reflection, refraction, and image formation in describing optical systems. Key concepts include * application of the laws of reflection and refraction; * construction and interpretation of ray diagrams; * development and use of mirror and lens equations; and * predictions of type, size, and position of real and virtual images.

About Rainbows

This site discusses reflection and refraction of light by describing what causes a rainbow. Also includes graphics to illustrate concepts.

PH.12 The student will investigate and understand how to use the field concept to describe the effects of electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces. Key concepts include * inverse square laws; * Newton's law of universal gravitation; * Coulomb's law; and * operating principles of motors, generators, and cathode ray tubes.

Teaching Coulomb's Law

Nick Sushkin has put together a good description of Coulomb's law. This site also allows the student to run a sample of Coulomb's experiment.

The Official Isaac Newton Homepage

A comprehensice site devoted to Sir Isaac Newton. This site includes links to various aspects of Newton and his life.

PH.13 The student will investigate and understand how to diagram and construct basic electrical circuits and explain the function of various circuit components. Key concepts include * Ohm's law; and * series, parallel, and combined circuits.

Ohm's Law

A very informative site that gives examples and even instructions of how to build a "floppy" robot.

Basic Electronics Mini-course

This site contains lessons/problems about series circuits and Ohm's law. The site also contains links to other types of circuits.

PH.14 The student will investigate and understand that extremely large and extremely small quantities are not necessarily described by the same laws as those studied in Newtonian physics. Key concepts include * wave/particle duality; * wave properties of matter; * matter/energy equivalence; * quantum mechanics and uncertainty; * relativity; * nuclear physics; * solid state physics; * superconductivity; and * radioactivity.

Visual Quantum Mechanics

A wonderful site for students who need extra explanation. The site is easy to navigate and full of graphics and examples.

Quantum Mechanics

This site includes links to vision, lightm and energy levels; wave-particle duality; and basic assumptions of Quantum Mechanics.

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