PH.1 The student will investigate and understand how to plan and
conduct investigations in which
* the components of a system are defined;
* instruments are selected and used to extend observations
and measurements of mass, volume, temperature, heat
exchange, energy transformations, motion, fields, and
electric charge;
* information is recorded and presented in an organized
format;
* metric units are used in all measurements and
calculations;
* the limitations of the experimental apparatus and design
are recognized;
* the limitations of measured quantities through the
appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges are
recognized; and
* data gathered from non-SI instruments are incorporated
through appropriate conversions.

This SOL does not have a web site.

PH.2 The student will investigate and understand how to analyze
and interpret data. Key concepts include
* a description of a physical problem is translated into a
mathematical statement in order to find a solution;
* relationships between physical quantities are determined
using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally
obtained data;
* the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and
includes appropriate units;
* interpolated, extrapolated, and analyzed trends are used
to make predictions;
* inferential statistical tests are applied in evaluating
experimental data; and
* analysis of systems employs vector quantities utilizing
trigonometric and graphical methods.

This SOL does not have a web site.

PH.3 The student will investigate and understand how to
demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic. Key concepts
include
* analysis of primary sources to develop and refine research
hypotheses;
* analysis of how science explains and predicts
relationships; and
* evaluation of evidence for scientific theories and how new
discoveries may either modify existing theories or result
in establishing a new paradigm.

This SOL does not have a web site.

PH.4 The student will investigate and understand how applications
of physics affect the world. Key concepts include
* principles with examples from the real world; and
* exploration of the roles and contributions of science and
technology.

This site includes links to many physics-related fields. Also includes a guided tour of Fermilab- one of the largest particle accelerators in the world.

PH.5 The student will investigate and understand the
interrelationships among mass, distance, force, and time
through mathematical and experimental processes. Key
concepts include
* linear motion;
* uniform circular motion;
* curvilinear motion;
* Newton's laws of motion;
* gravitation;
* celestial mechanics; and
* work, power, and energy.

Science,Physics, Relativity, FAQs and Feedback

A very interesting site which includes links to literature and other pages on the subject. Multiple questions that students may ask are listed as well as the answers.

PH.6 The student will investigate and understand that quantities
including mass, energy, momentum, and charge are conserved.
Key concepts include
* kinetic and potential energy;
* elastic and inelastic collisions; and
* electric power and circuit design.

Explains potential and kinetic energy in simple terms. Includes detailed graphics.

PH.7 The student will investigate and understand that the kinetic
molecular theory can be applied to solve quantitative
problems involving pressure, volume, and temperature.

A good outline devoted to the Kinetic Theory. Also includes many links to other related theories.

PH.8 The student will investigate and understand that energy can
be transferred and transformed to provide usable work. Key
concepts include
* transformation of energy among forms, including
mechanical, thermal, electrical, gravitational, chemical,
and nuclear; and
* efficiency of systems.

International Geothermal Association

A complete site of geothermal energy. Includes links to other pages with geothermal interests, details of geothermal meetings, and basics about geothermal energy.

Enerfy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN)

This site includes links to energy programs and offices, news, events, and related sites. This site also has its own search engine for easy access.

PH.9 The student will investigate and understand how to use
models of transverse and longitudinal waves to interpret
wave phenomena. Key concepts include
* wave characteristics (period, wavelength, frequency,
amplitude and phase);
* fundamental wave processes (reflection, refraction,
diffraction, interference, standing waves, polarization,
Doppler effect); and
* light and sound in terms of wave models.

Lesson Plan on the Doppler Effect

A good lesson on the Doppler Effect. This site also includes an explanation of how the Doppler Effect will be used on the spacecraft of the NEAR mission.

A wonderful page full of graphics which allow the student to see a visual representation of the Doppler Effect. Well worth the visit.

PH.10 The student will investigate and understand that different
frequencies and wavelengths in the electromagnetic
spectrum are phenomena ranging from radio waves through
visible light to gamma radiation. Key concepts include
* the properties and behaviors of radio, microwaves, infra-
red, visible light, ultra-violet, X-rays, and gamma rays;
and
* current applications based on the wave properties of each
band.

Wonderful graphic of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. This site also contains a description of gamma rays.

PH.11 The student will investigate and understand how light
behaves in the fundamental processes of reflection,
refraction, and image formation in describing optical
systems. Key concepts include
* application of the laws of reflection and refraction;
* construction and interpretation of ray diagrams;
* development and use of mirror and lens equations; and
* predictions of type, size, and position of real and
virtual images.

This site discusses reflection and refraction of light by describing what causes a rainbow. Also includes graphics to illustrate concepts.

PH.12 The student will investigate and understand how to use the
field concept to describe the effects of electric,
magnetic, and gravitational forces. Key concepts include
* inverse square laws;
* Newton's law of universal gravitation;
* Coulomb's law; and
* operating principles of motors, generators, and cathode
ray tubes.

Nick Sushkin has put together a good description of Coulomb's law. This site also allows the student to run a sample of Coulomb's experiment.

The Official Isaac Newton Homepage

A comprehensice site devoted to Sir Isaac Newton. This site includes links to various aspects of Newton and his life.

PH.13 The student will investigate and understand how to diagram
and construct basic electrical circuits and explain the
function of various circuit components. Key concepts
include
* Ohm's law; and
* series, parallel, and combined circuits.

A very informative site that gives examples and even instructions of how to build a "floppy" robot.

This site contains lessons/problems about series circuits and Ohm's law. The site also contains links to other types of circuits.

PH.14 The student will investigate and understand that extremely
large and extremely small quantities are not necessarily
described by the same laws as those studied in Newtonian
physics. Key concepts include
* wave/particle duality;
* wave properties of matter;
* matter/energy equivalence;
* quantum mechanics and uncertainty;
* relativity;
* nuclear physics;
* solid state physics;
* superconductivity; and
* radioactivity.

A wonderful site for students who need extra explanation. The site is easy to navigate and full of graphics and examples.

This site includes links to vision, lightm and energy levels; wave-particle duality; and basic assumptions of Quantum Mechanics.

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